|How Do Results Look and What do They Mean?
Example Results for a Person of Chippewa (Anishinaabeg) Ancestry
Comments for this sample individual: These sample results are for a person of Chippewa/Ojibwa (Anishinaabeg) descent. To view
a sample of results in high resolution PDF format, please click here.
Part A: Genetic Profile: Your unique genetic profile includes your allele values for 21 genetic markers distributed throughout your
autosomal chromosomes. At each locus, you have two values: one allele inherited from your father and one allele inherited from your
mother, for a total of 42 dimensions used to compute your geographic ancestry. Your unique combination of alleles is used to
compute high resolution Native Population, Global Population and World Region matches.
Comments for this sample individual: At each locus, this individual inherited one allele value from their mother and one from their
father. Each allele value is a number representing repeats of a particular genetic sequence. For instance, at locus TH01, this
individual has inherited one allele of length 7 (7 repeats) and one allele of length 9.3 (9.3 repeats). This DNA profile serves as a
genetic fingerprint for this person. This collection of allele values is used to compute a person’s connections to individual populations
and world regions.
Part B: High Resolution Native Population Match: DNA Tribes identifies your Top 20 matches in a database of all native
populations that have experienced minimal movement and admixture in the last 500 years. Individual matches do not necessary
indicate recent social or cultural affiliation with a particular ethnicity. Instead, the geographical distribution of your Native Population
Match results indicates your most likely deep ancestral origins.
Comments for this sample individual: The Top 20 Native population matches for this individual all fall within the Americas.
Individual scores do not indicate a person’s percentage of individual ethnic groups. Instead, they indicate where a DNA profile is most
frequent. The strongest match is with a Sioux and Chippewa sample from Minnesota, where this individual’s DNA profile is
1,090,496.23 times as likely as in the world as a whole. The TribeScore of (0.61) indicates this score is higher than 61% of sampled
Sioux and Chippewa individuals. However, this DNA profile can be found in other nearby Native American populations at lower
frequencies. For instance, the score for an Apache population sample is 33,725.82, indicating this DNA profile is 1,090,496.23 /
33,725.82 = 32.33 times as likely in these sampled Minnesota Sioux and Chippewa as in sampled Apache.
For this individual, Minnesota Sioux and Chippewa would be the most likely population of origin, but other ethnic origins such as
Apache cannot be excluded. It is also possible but substantially less likely that this individual could be of Ontario Ojibwa (Chippewa)
or Alaskan Athabaskan heritage but has inherited genetic markers that are more typical of other nearby Native American
Part C: High Resolution Global Population Match: In this section we provide your Top 20 matches in a database of all global
populations, including native peoples as well as Diaspora groups that expanded from their homelands and sometimes admixed with
other populations in recent history. The geographical distribution of these matches indicates your closest genetic relatives today and
peoples whose blend of geographical ancestry is most similar to your own.
Comments for this sample individual: These Global results include not just Native American populations but also general (non-
tribal specific) Native American populations as well as Hispanic Diaspora populations of Latin America, who have inherited genetic
ancestry from Native Americans as well as Europeans and Africans. For instance, this individual’s DNA profile can be found in several
Latin American populations at similar frequencies. Global matches do not mean this individual’s ancestors lived in Peru or Minnesota,
but indicate places where Latinos of a similar genetic background live today.
Part D: High Resolution World Region Match: World Region Match measures your genetic connections to major world regions:
Comments for this sample individual: World region results provide the best general picture of a person’s genetic connections to the
world. They can often clarify individual Native and Global population match results. For instance, this individual’s DNA profile is most
frequent in the Ojibwa (East Algonquian) region. This is consistent with the distribution of both Native and Global population matches,
which are concentrated in North America.
To be more precise, this individual’s DNA profile is most frequent in the Ojibwa genetic region, where it is 1,434,007.68 times as likely
as in the world. Substantial scores (>1.0) also include other American Indian genetic regions. These secondary affiliations indicate
this DNA profile can be found only at substantially lower frequencies in other world regions.
Scores can be compared to each other to give relative frequency: for instance. This DNA profile is 1,434,007.68 / 10,868.95 = 131.94
times as frequent in the Ojibwa region as in the Athabaskan region. This indicates that while this person’s DNA is most common in
Ojibwa, it can be found at a lower frequency in Athabaskan genetic territory.
All scores are measured against the Generic Human Index of 1.0. Scores above 1.0 are more frequent in that region than in the
world, while scores below 1.0 are more frequent in the world than in that region. For instance, this individual’s score for the Malay
Archipelago region is 0.01, indicating this DNA profile is 1.0 / 0.01 = 100 times as likely in the world as in Malays.
Summary Comments: DNA Tribes results for this person provide a detailed and comprehensive picture of their American Indian
ancestry including their closest genetic relatives amongst American Indian tribal nations and genetic homelands and modern Latin
American Diaspora populations as well as precise measurements of where their DNA profile can be found in major world regions.