How Do Results Look and What do They Mean?

Example Results for a Person of Ojibwa (Chippewa) Ancestry

Comments for this sample individual: These sample results are for a person of Ojibwa (Chippewa) descent. To view a sample of results in high resolution PDF format, please click here



Part A: Genetic Profile: Your unique genetic profile includes the values for 26 genetic markers distributed throughout your autosomal chromosomes. For each marker (also known as a “locus”) you have two values (“alleles”): one inherited from your father and the other inherited from your mother, for a total of 52 dimensions used to perform your DNA Tribes’ ancestry testing. More specifically, your unique combination of alleles is used to compute high resolution Native Population, Global Population and World Region matches.



Ojibwa (Chippewa) descent Locus Genetic Markers

Comments for this sample individual: At each locus, this individual inherited one allele value from their mother and one from their father. Each allele value is a number representing repeats of a particular genetic sequence. For instance, at locus D21S11, this individual has inherited one allele of length 29 (29 repeats) and one allele of length 30.2 (30.2 repeats). Because these alleles are passed down independently on separate chromosomes, it would be necessary to test a parent to determine which allele was passed down by which parent. This DNA profile serves as a genetic fingerprint for this person, and this collection of allele values is used to compute this person’s connections to individual populations and World Regions in the DNA Tribes’ reference database..



Part B: High Resolution Native Population Match: DNA Tribes identifies your Top 20 matches in our reference database of more than 900 native populations that have experienced minimal movement and admixture in the last 500 years. Individual population matches do not necessary indicate recent social or cultural affiliation with a particular ethnicity. Instead, the geographical distribution of your Native Population Match results indicates your most likely deep ancestral origins



DNA matches do not necessarily suggest a recent family ancestor from each country listed and can express the genetic traces of more ancient relationships between populations through shared origins, migrations, and long term trade contacts in each part of the world. For people with mixed ancestry, DNA matches can also identify populations where similar mixing has taken place (such as native populations located near historical trade and migration routes between continents).



Satellite heat markers for Sample results of person with Ojibwa (Chippewa) descent Part A

Key to map with heat markers for sample results of a person with Ojibwa (Chippewa) descent Part A

Comments for this sample individual: The Top 20 Native population matches based on MLI scores for this individual are with Native American populations. The listed individual MLI scores do not indicate the percentage of individual’s genetic material attributable to individual populations. Instead, these MLI scores assess the relative likelihood of this person’s genetic make-up occurring in a particular population:



  • For example, the strongest match for this person is with the Anishinaabeg (Chippewa/Ojibwe) population from Ontario, where this individual’s DNA profile is ~5.3 billion times more likely to occur than in the world as a whole. A TribeScore of (0.78) indicates that this person’s MLI score is higher than scores for 78% of individuals from this population; thus, this individual’s genetic make-up fits the data from the Anishinaabeg (Chippewa/Ojibwe) sample well.


  • However, similar DNA profile to our example Ojibwa person can be found in other indigenous populations of North America: the MLI score for the Sioux and Chippewa population sample from Minnesota (USA) is ~3.0 billion, indicating that this example DNA profile is 5.3 billion / 3.0 billion = 1.7 times more likely to occur in the Anishinaabeg (Chippewa/Ojibwe) population from Ontario than in the Sioux and Chippewa population sample from Minnesota (USA) (based on the ratio of the MLI scores for these two populations). In addition, the TribeScore of (0.80) for the Sioux and Chippewa population sample from Minnesota (USA) indicates that 80% of individuals from this population would have lower MLI scores than the sample individual; hence, this individual’s MLI score is quite high for this population.



For this example individual the Anishinaabeg (Chippewa/Ojibwe) population from Ontario is the most likely native population of origin among the Native populations included in the DNA Tribes reference database; however, other populations with very high matches (e.g., Sioux and Cree) cannot be excluded. In addition to a large number of North American indigenous populations in their Top 20, this individual also has strong matches with indigenous populations of South America (e.g., Peru and Ecuador).



Note: Some populations appear multiple times in the Top 20 (e.g., Anishinaabeg (Chippewa/Ojibwe)). This is due to multiple population samples available for each population and each MLI score represents an independent comparison of an individual’s DNA to a particular sample.



Part C: High Resolution Global Population Match: In this section we provide your Top 20 matches in the DNA Tribes database of all populations, including native peoples as well as Diaspora groups that expanded from their homelands and sometimes admixed with other populations in recent history. The geographical distribution of these matches indicates your closest genetic relatives today and the world communities where the genetic material you have inherited is shared.



Satellite heat markers for Sample results of person with Ojibwa (Chippewa) descent Part C

Key to map with heat markers for sample results of a person with Ojibwa (Chippewa) descent Part C

Comments for this sample individual: These Global results include not just Native American populations but also general (non- tribal specific) Native American populations as well as Hispanic Diaspora populations of Latin America, who have inherited genetic ancestry from Native Americans as well as Europeans and Africans. For instance, this individual’s DNA profile can be found in several Latin American populations at similar frequencies. Global matches do not mean this individual’s ancestors lived in Peru or Minnesota, but indicate places where individuals with a similar genetic background live today.



Part D: High Resolution World Region Match: World Region matches measure your genetic connections to major genetic World Regions identified by DNA Tribes using proprietary statistical algorithms. Each World Region is comprised of multiple populations that are geographically adjacent and genetically similar.



Satellite heat markers for Sample results of person with Ojibwa (Chippewa) descent Part C

Key to map with heat markers for sample results of a person with Ojibwa (Chippewa) descent Part C

Comments for this sample individual: World Region results provide the most robust assessment of the person’s genetic connections to the world. They can often clarify and confirm individual Native and Global population match results. For instance, this sample individual’s DNA profile is most common in the North Amerindian World Region (the highest MLI score) and much less common in the Andean World Region (the second highest MLI score). This is consistent with the distribution of this person’s Native and Global population matches in Parts B and C, which are strongest for the Northern American indigenous Indian populations and slightly weaker for indigenous South American Indian populations. More precisely, this individual’s DNA profile is most frequent in the North Amerindian World Region, where it is ~306 million times more likely to occur than in the world as a whole. This individual’s second highest match is with the Andean World Region (MLI of ~1 million). Hence, this individual’s genetic make-up is 306 million / 1 million = 306 times more likely to occur in the indigenous populations of North America than in the indigenous populations of South America.



All other World Regions for this individual, as judged by their MLI scores, are much less likely sources of ancestry.



Summary Comments: DNA Tribes results for this person provide a detailed and comprehensive picture of their Native American ancestry including their closest genetic relatives amongst American Indian populations and World Regions, as well as detailed information about other parts of the world where their DNA profile can be found at lower frequencies.